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高原气象  2017, Vol. 36 Issue (6): 1433-1456    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2017.00075
综述     
世界干旱气候研究动态及进展综述(Ⅰ):若干主要干旱区国家的研究动态及联合国的贡献
钱正安1, 宋敏红2, 吴统文3, 蔡英1
1. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
2. 成都信息工程大学, 四川 成都 610225;
3. 中国气象局气候中心, 北京 100008
Review of Advances in World Arid Climate Research (Ⅰ):Development and Contribution of Some Main Dryland Countries and the UN
QIAN Zheng'an1, SONG Minhong2, WU Tongwen3, CAI Ying1
1. Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China;
2. Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225, Sichuan, China;
3. National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China
 全文: PDF(1394 KB)  
摘要: 为回顾和评述过去70年来世界干旱气候的研究动态及进展,本综述系列文章(Ⅰ)首先从横向评述了世界若干主要干旱区国家的研究动态和联合国专业机构的贡献。其要点如下:(1)20世纪世界出现了两大干旱事件,即20世纪30年代美国的"沙尘暴干旱"和1968-1999年的北非持续干旱。它们灾情重,警示作用强,推进了世界干旱气候研究。(2)作为当今世界科技强国,美国的干旱气候研究起步早,在干旱气候的每一分支领域都起了引领作用,特别是在干旱指数和判据的提出和应用、干旱气候成因及气候模式的模拟方面。(3)中国作为发展中大国,中蒙干旱区是世界独特的中纬度干旱区,我国的干旱气候研究起步虽晚,但中国西北地区水流输送\,西北干旱气候成因及中蒙地区春季沙尘暴等方面的研究也取得了令人鼓舞的成果。(4)其他国家如澳、英、日本及联合国等也对世界干旱气候研究、遏制全球增暖及应对全球气候变化等方面作出了重要贡献。
关键词: 世界干旱气候重大干旱事件八大干旱区中蒙干旱区干旱气候形成原因    
Abstract: To review the development status and advances in world dryland climate investigation in the past 70 years, first of all, the companion paper (Ⅰ) introduces the development status and contribution of some main dryland countries and the UN. The main points are as follows:(1) In the 20th century, there were two major drought events occurring:one was "the dust bowl drought of 1930", US. Another one was southern Sahel long term one from 1968-1999. (2) The US is the strongest county in the dryland climate research in past century. Its dry climate studies begin earlier, act the leading role almost in the each branch field of its, especially in putting award and using of drought indices and the causes of the arid climate forming. (3) As a developing country, China dry climate research begin something late, but some encouraging pregresses in China-Mongolia dry climate have been already made since 1980 then, say the summer water vapor transform in the center area of Northwest China dar climate, the spring dust storm in China-Mongolia zone and the dryland climate forming. (4) And also Australia, British, Japan and the UN have an important contribution to world dryland climate investigation and combating global warming.
Key words: World drought dryland    major arid event    eight major arid zones    China-Mongolia dry zone    dry climate forming causes
收稿日期: 2017-04-24 出版日期: 2017-12-20
ZTFLH:  P426.616  
基金资助: 国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFA0602100);成都信息工程大学科研基金项目(KYTZ201721)
通讯作者: 宋敏红.E-mail:songmh@cuit.edu.cn     E-mail: songmh@cuit.edu.cn
作者简介: 钱正安(1940),男,江苏镇江人,研究员,主要从事高原气象、数值预报和模拟及干旱气候研究.E-mail:qza@lzb.ac.cn
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引用本文:

钱正安, 宋敏红, 吴统文, 蔡英. 世界干旱气候研究动态及进展综述(Ⅰ):若干主要干旱区国家的研究动态及联合国的贡献[J]. 高原气象, 2017, 36(6): 1433-1456.

QIAN Zheng'an, SONG Minhong, WU Tongwen, CAI Ying. Review of Advances in World Arid Climate Research (Ⅰ):Development and Contribution of Some Main Dryland Countries and the UN. PLATEAU METEOROLOGY, 2017, 36(6): 1433-1456.

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http://www.gyqx.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2017.00075        http://www.gyqx.ac.cn/CN/Y2017/V36/I6/1433

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