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高原气象  2018, Vol. 37 Issue (3): 662-674    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2017.00083
论文     
东亚和北美地区温度和降水变化特征
杨朝虹, 张镭, 苑广辉, 郭琪, 孙乃秀, 杜韬
半干旱气候变化教育部重点实验室, 兰州大学大气科学学院, 甘肃 兰州 730000
Characteristics of Temperature and Precipitation in East Asia and North America
YANG Zhaohong, ZHANG Lei, YUAN Guanghui, GUO Qi, SUN Naixiu, DU Tao
Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China
 全文: PDF 
摘要: 温湿变化的年代际特征及区域差异是全球气候变化研究的重要内容之一。利用1901-2014年东英吉利大学气候研究中心(CRU)TS3.20月地表温度和降水资料分析了东亚和北美地区温度和降水变化的季节性和区域特征,并利用1979-2015年欧洲中心天气预报中心(ECMWF)ERA-Interim日最高/最低温和降水资料进一步分析了东亚和北美地区受极端天气影响的区域所占比例的年际变化。结果发现,近110多年来东亚地区[0.134℃·(10a)-1]的增温趋势高于北美地区[0.102℃·(10a)-1],东亚干旱半干旱区的增温趋势低于东亚地区,而北美干旱半干旱区的增温趋势高于北美地区。季节性特征表现为在冷季增温明显,东亚地区冷季增温约是暖季的2.9倍,北美地区为1.3倍。季节性增温存在明显的纬度差异,在东亚和北美高纬度地区(45°N以北)冷季温度的增长速率通常比暖季大。东亚和北美的降水增加趋势均高于北半球,暖季降水增加明显并且主要发生在东亚和北美高纬度地区(45°N以北)。东亚和北美的干旱半干旱区的降水没有明显增加趋势,分别为0.04 mm·(10a)-1和0.07 mm·(10a)-1。东亚和北美地区及东亚和北美的干旱半干旱区受极端高温影响的面积有增加趋势,受极端低温影响的面积没有明显变化,受极端降水影响的面积有减少趋势。北美和东亚地区以及北美和东亚干旱半干旱区的月平均温度对PDO(Pacific Decadal Oscillation)的响应比ENSO(El Niño Southern Oscillation)明显,月平均降水对ENSO的响应比PDO明显。
关键词: 东亚北美干旱半干旱区温度和降水特征    
Abstract: The interdecadal and regional differences of temperature and precipitation are one of the important contents of global climate change research. In this paper, the seasonal and regional characteristics of temperature and precipitation variation in East Asia and North America were analyzed by using the CRU TS3.20 data from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia during the period of 1901-2014. Furthermore, we also analyzed the interannual variation of the area ratio that affected by extreme weather events in East Asia and North America by using the ERA-Interim data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) during the period of 1979-2015. It is found that the warming trend in East Asia[0.134℃·(10a)-1] is higher than that in North America[0.102℃·(10a)-1] over the past 110 years. The warming trend of arid and semi-arid regions in East Asia is slightly lower than that in East Asia, while the warming trend of arid and semi-arid regions in North America is slightly higher than that in North America. As for seasonal characteristics, the warming trend is obvious in the cold season. It is 2.9 (1.3) times higher in East Asia (North America) during cold season than during warm season. There is a significant latitude difference in seasonal warming trend. The warming rate for high latitude (45°N) region in East Asia and North America is generally greater during cold season than during warm season. The East Asia and North America have a greater increase in precipitation than Northern Hemisphere. The increase of precipitation is obvious during warm season and mainly occurs in the high latitudes of East Asia and North America (45°N). The increase of precipitation is not obvious for arid and semi-arid regions in East Asia[0.04 mm·(10a)-1] and North America[0.07 mm·(10a)-1]. In East Asia and North America as well as arid and semi-arid regions, the area affected by extreme high temperature has an increasing trend, while the variation of the area affected by extreme low temperature is not obvious, and the area affected by extreme precipitation has a decreasing trend. The monthly average temperature in North American and East Asia and the arid and semi-arid regions is more responsive to PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation) than that to ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation), and the monthly average precipitation has a stronger response to ENSO than PDO.
Key words: East Asia    North America    arid and semi-arid regions    characteristics of temperature and precipitation
收稿日期: 2017-07-13 出版日期: 2018-06-24
ZTFLH:  P461  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目(41475008,41521004);兰州大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(lzujbky-2017-it23)
通讯作者: 张镭(1960),男,山西临汾人,教授,主要从事大气物理与大气环境研究.E-mail:zhanglei@lzu.edu.cn     E-mail: zhanglei@lzu.edu.cn
作者简介: 杨朝虹(1989),女,黑龙江五大连池人,博士研究生,主要从事大气物理与大气环境研究.E-mail:yangchh13@lzu.edu.cn
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引用本文:

杨朝虹, 张镭, 苑广辉, 郭琪, 孙乃秀, 杜韬. 东亚和北美地区温度和降水变化特征[J]. 高原气象, 2018, 37(3): 662-674.

YANG Zhaohong, ZHANG Lei, YUAN Guanghui, GUO Qi, SUN Naixiu, DU Tao. Characteristics of Temperature and Precipitation in East Asia and North America. Plateau Meteorology, 2018, 37(3): 662-674.

链接本文:

http://www.gyqx.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2017.00083        http://www.gyqx.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I3/662

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