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高原气象  2018, Vol. 37 Issue (4): 946-957    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2017.00059
论文     
一次副热带高压边缘突发性暴雨的锋生及水汽特征分析
邱贵强, 赵桂香, 董春卿, 王晓丽
山西省气象台, 山西 太原 030006
Frontogenesis and Moisture Characteristic Analysis on a Sudden Rainstorm at the Edge of Subtropical High
QIU Guiqiang, ZHAO Guixiang, DONG Chunqing, WANG Xiaoli
Shanxi Meteorological Observatory, Taiyuan 030006, Shanxi, China
 全文: PDF 
摘要: 针对2010年7月31日夜间山西西南部一次业务模式出现较大预报偏差的西太平洋副热带高压(下称副高)边缘突发性暴雨天气过程,利用常规和降水加密观测资料、FY-2E卫星TBB数据以及中尺度模式WRF高分辨率数值模拟结果,诊断分析了暴雨的发生发展、锋生及锋生过程中的水汽演变特征。结果表明:此次突发性暴雨是由高空槽后干冷空气推动副高边缘暖湿气流所导致的一次锋生型强降水,β中尺度对流系统(meso-β circular convective system,MβCCS)是造成暴雨的直接影响系统,低层β中尺度涡旋的形成和发展为MβCCS的维持提供了有利的水汽辐合条件,地面冷锋及其附近中尺度辐合线是对流触发因子。锋生诊断表明,低层辐合、中层辐散的垂直结构导致对流层低层水平锋生、中层水平锋消,而低层强烈的上升运动使得强不稳定层结高度升高,从而引起对流层中层强垂直锋生发展,垂直锋生与水平锋生同时产生,且垂直锋生较水平锋生大一个量级,中低层强锋生和次级环流圈的出现与强降水的发生时间和位置对应较好,比较而言,倾斜项对总锋生贡献最大,辐合项贡献最小。中低层锋生的加强有利于低层水汽的辐合抬升,锋生过程中深厚的水汽饱和层的出现以及水汽含量向高空的凸起,对局地强降水的预报有明显的指示意义。另外,高空冷空气的强度、移动路径以及MβCCS的发展对判断此类强降水的发生和暴雨落区具有重要作用。
关键词: 暴雨锋生涡旋副高MβCCS    
Abstract: For the sudden rainstorm predicted with a large deviation by several operational models, which occurred at the edge of western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) southwest of Shanxi province at night on 31 July 2010, the conventional observation, hourly precipitation, TBB data derived from FY-2E satellite and WRF model high resolution simulation results were used to analyze the evolution of rainstorm, frontogenesis and moisture characteristics. The results indicated that the sudden rainstorm was due to frontogenesis that caused by dry and cold air at the back of upper trough pushing the warm and moist air at the edge of WPSH. The meso-β circular convective system (MβCCS) led to the rainstorm directly. The formation and development of mesoscale-β vortex provided a favorable condition of moisture convergence to the maintenance of MβCCS. The surface cold front and nearby mesoscale convergence line triggered the convection develop. Frontogenesis diagnosis showed that the vertical structure of low-level convergence and middle-level divergence led to low-level horizontal frontogenesis and middle-level horizontal frontolysis in the troposphere. The strong ascending motion made the height of strong instability layer rise and thus led to strong middle-level vertical frontogenesis. The vertical and horizontal frontogenesis happened at the same time, but the vertical frontogenesis was an order of magnitude larger than the horizontal frontogenesis. The appearance of middle-and low-level strong frontogenesis and secondary circulation corresponded well with the time and the location of strong precipitation. In comparison, the tilting term contributed most to total frontogenesis, and the convergence term contributed least. The strength of middle-and low-level frontogenesis is beneficial to the rise of low-level moisture. In the process of frontogenesis, deep moisture saturation layer thickness and the water vapor content stretching to high-level have evident indication to the forecast of local strong precipitation. At last, the intensity and moving track of upper cold air and development of MβCCS are major points to determine the location of such type of rainstorm.
Key words: Rainstorm    frontogenesis    vortex    subtropical high    MβCCS
收稿日期: 2017-03-23 出版日期: 2018-08-22
:  P458.1+21.1  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目(41475050);山西省气象局重点项目(SXKZDTQ20165201)
作者简介: 邱贵强(1986-),男,内蒙古莫旗人,工程师,主要从事天气预报技术及数值模拟研究.E-mail:qiugq06@lzb.ac.cn
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引用本文:

邱贵强, 赵桂香, 董春卿, 王晓丽. 一次副热带高压边缘突发性暴雨的锋生及水汽特征分析[J]. 高原气象, 2018, 37(4): 946-957.

QIU Guiqiang, ZHAO Guixiang, DONG Chunqing, WANG Xiaoli. Frontogenesis and Moisture Characteristic Analysis on a Sudden Rainstorm at the Edge of Subtropical High. Plateau Meteorology, 2018, 37(4): 946-957.

链接本文:

http://www.gyqx.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2017.00059        http://www.gyqx.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I4/946

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