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高原气象  2018, Vol. 37 Issue (5): 1277-1288    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2017.00070
论文     
秦岭北麓一次冷锋触发的短时强降水成因分析
王楠1, 赵强1, 井宇1, 张小雯2
1. 陕西省气象台, 陕西 西安 710015;
2. 国家气象中心, 北京 100081
Causation Analysis of a Short-Time Strong Rainfall Triggered by Cold Front at the Northern Piedmont of Qinling Mountains
WANG Nan1, ZHAO Qiang1, JING Yu1, ZHANG Xiaowen2
1. Shaanxi Meteorological Observatory, Xi'an 710014, shaanxi, China;
2. National Meteorological Centre, Beijing 100081, China
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摘要: 2015年8月3日秦岭北麓突发短时强降水,强度之大近年少有,并引发山洪造成人员伤亡。应用高空观测资料、地面加密资料、NCEP再分析资料,并结合风廓线雷达和多普勒天气雷达资料分析发现,此次降水过程具备较好的对流潜势及湿度条件,由冷锋系统触发,冷锋系统结构特点包括:锋区前近地面水汽含量>18 g·kg-1,锋面上升运动处于下沉运动之上、自由对流高度以下,850 hPa以下强冷平流造成该层浅薄逆温,锋前出现显著对流不稳定,均为对流性强降水发生创造有利条件。强冷平流带来水平锋生,对流不稳定产生垂直锋生,总体强锋生主要出现在对流层中下层,达到20×10-10 K·s-1·m-1。秦岭的阻挡作用使得冷锋过境转为偏西风,并与强降水正反馈形成超低空强西风带。偏西风与迎面山体配合对降水产生增幅作用,并为降水区带来水汽输送,但超低空西风较强容易破坏雷暴单体的垂直结构,又使得降水不能长时间维持。风廓线雷达能够探测到冷锋系统的精细化垂直风场结构,反映了冷锋的垂直结构信息,并较其他气象要素更能提前预判系统发展,具有较强的预报指示意义。
关键词: 锋生短时强降水风廓线雷达超低空急流    
Abstract: On August 3, 2015, a short time heavy rainfall suddenly occurred at the northern piedmont of Qinling Mountains, whose intensity has been rarely seen in recent years, triggered floods and caused casualties. Based on the analysis of aerological sounding data, intense surface observation data, NCEP reanalysis data, wind profile data and Doppler radar data, it was found that the precipitation process has good convective potential and humidity condition, and it was triggered by the cold front system. The structural features of the cold front system include:thewater vapor content was greater than 18 g·kg-1 near surface in front of the front zone, the frontal rising motion located above the sinking movement and below the free convection level, there was significant convection instability ahead of the front and so on, which are all favorable conditions for the occurrence of convective strong precipitation. The calculation result of frontogenetical function showed that strong frontogenesis(up to 20×10-10 K·s-1·m-1) of this process mainly occured in the middle and lower troposphere. The main reason is that the cold front system was accompanied by strong cold advection at 850 hPa which caused the horizontal frontogenesis; convective instability and the ascending motion caused vertical frontogenesis. In addition, the strong cold advection at 850 hPa caused shallow temperature inversion of the layer, so that convective instability energy can be concentrated, that is another favorable factor for the development of strong convection in the afternoon. The wind shifted to the west and formed ultra low level strong westerly wind with feedback of heavy rainfall after the cold front passed due to the blockage of Qinling Mountains. The westerly winds combining with the windward slope of Qinling Mountains made amplitude effect to the precipitation and brought low level water vapour transportation for the precipitation area, but the presence of the ultra low westerly wind causes the environment wind appeared negative vertical wind shear and was consistent with the moving direction of the storm. Under the influence of such wind field, the bottom of the storm which has just been established moving eastward faster than the top, and the vertical structure of the storm is difficult to maintain for a long time. The wind profile radar can detect the fine vertical wind structure of the cold front system, which reflects the vertical structure information of the cold front and predict weather system development much earlier than the other meteorological elements, which has a good indicative significance for the forecast.
Key words: Frontogenesis    short-time heavy rainfall    wind profile radar    ultra-low-level west wind
收稿日期: 2017-06-21 出版日期: 2018-10-19
:  P458.2  
基金资助: 公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201306005);国家自然科学基金项目(41561144004);中国气象局预报员专项(CMAYBY2016-072);陕西省气象局面上科研项目(2017M-3)
作者简介: 王楠(1976-),女,陕西西安人,高级工程师,主要从事强对流天气短时临近预报方法研究.E-mail:wnanw@163.com
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引用本文:

王楠, 赵强, 井宇, 张小雯. 秦岭北麓一次冷锋触发的短时强降水成因分析[J]. 高原气象, 2018, 37(5): 1277-1288.

WANG Nan, ZHAO Qiang, JING Yu, ZHANG Xiaowen. Causation Analysis of a Short-Time Strong Rainfall Triggered by Cold Front at the Northern Piedmont of Qinling Mountains. Plateau Meteorology, 2018, 37(5): 1277-1288.

链接本文:

http://www.gyqx.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2017.00070        http://www.gyqx.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I5/1277

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