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高原气象  2018, Vol. 37 Issue (5): 1220-1232    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2018.00014
论文     
新疆西部一次极端暴雨事件的成因分析
曾勇1,2, 杨莲梅1,2
1. 中国气象局乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830002;
2. 中亚大气科学研究中心, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830002
Analysis on the Causes of an Extreme Rainfall Event in the West of Xinjiang
ZENG Yong1,2, YANG Lianmei1,2
1. Institute of Desert and Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Urumqi 830002, Xinjiang, China;
2. Center for central Asia Atmosphere Science Research, Urumqi 830002, Xinjiang, China
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摘要: 利用常规观测、FY-2G、地面加密自动站和NCEP/NCAR(0.25°×0.25°)再分析资料,对2016年7月31日至8月1日新疆西部出现的一次极端特大暴雨过程进行分析。结果表明:暴雨发生在南亚高压单体型和"两脊一槽"稳定环流形势下,暴雨区位于200 hPa高空西南急流入口区右侧、700 hPa低空偏东急流前部、500 hPa偏南急流及700 hPa辐合线附近。除中亚低槽自身携带的水汽外,在极为有利的高、中、低纬环流系统配合下孟加拉湾、南海和西太平洋向暴雨区输送的丰沛水汽也是此次极端特大暴雨的重要水汽来源。暴雨区西、东、南边界水汽输入均起着重要作用,尤其是西边界和东边界,占水汽输入总量的78.4%。暴雨区上空高低空急流的配合以及纬向风的水平切变和经向风的垂直切变为暴雨区辐合上升运动和中尺度系统的产生和发展提供有利条件。中尺度对流云团生成后在引导气流的作用下不断向北移动发展,是造成暴雨的直接系统。发展、移动的低空急流、切变线、风场辐合线和地形辐合线及自天山迎风坡向北分布的多个具有强上升支的中尺度垂直环流不断将水汽和能量向上输送,经500 hPa槽前强偏南气流向北输送至暴雨区上空。中低层暖平流、风切变和天山地形对天山迎风坡暴雨中尺度系统的产生和向上强烈发展有重要的作用。
关键词: 极端特大暴雨水汽输送中尺度对流云团地形    
Abstract: Based on the conventional observational data, the TBB data of FY-2G satellite, the data of ground encrypted automatic weather stations and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data with 0.25°×0.25° spatial resolution, the cause of an extreme torrential rainstorm occurred in the West of Xinjiang from 31 July to 1 August 2016 was studied. The results are as follows:Stable circulation of "two ridges one trough" at 500 hPa and monomorphic South Asia high pressure at 100 hPa were the weather background of the rainstorm, rainstorm area was located in the right side of the entrance area of southwest jet at 200 hPa, the front of low-level east jet at 700 hPa, nearby of southerly jet at 500 hPa and the convergence line at 700 hPa. The water vapor source of the extreme heavy rain were Central Asia low trough carried its own water vapor and low latitude Baya Bay, the South China Sea and the Western Pacific Ocean transporting to the rainstorm area rich water vapor under the extremely advantageous match of the high, medium and low latitude circulation system. Water vapor importations that from the west border, east border and south border played an important role in the rainstorm process, especially the western boundary and the eastern boundary, accounting for 78.4% of the total water vapor input. The match of the high altitude jet and the low altitude jet and the horizontal shear of the meridional wind and the vertical shear of the zonal wind provided favorable conditions for the generation and development of the mesoscale systems of the rainstorm and the convergence rising movement in the rainstorm area. After the formation of the mesoscale convective cloud, moving and developing northward continuously under the action of the pilot airflow, which were the direct systems of heavy rain. Developmental and moving the low-level jet, the shear line, the wind field convergence line and the terrain convergence line and a number of strong ascending branch of the multiple mesoscale vertical circulations from the Tianshan windward slope to distributed northward constantly transported the water vapor and the energy upwards, which were transported northward to the rainstorm area by strong southerly flow of the trough at 500 hPa. All of the warm advection, the wind shear of middle and low level and the Tianshan terrain played an important role in the generation and upward intensive development of the mesoscale system on the windward slope of the Tianshan terrain constantly.
Key words: Extreme torrential rainstorm    vapor transportation    mesoscale convective cloud    terrain
收稿日期: 2017-10-18 出版日期: 2018-10-19
:  P458.1+21.1  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目(41565003);科技部公益性行业科研专项(GYHY201506009);国家自然科学基金国际合作项目(41661144024)
通讯作者: 杨莲梅(1969-),女,河北承德人,研究员,主要从事灾害性天气研究.E-mail:yanglm@idm.cn     E-mail: yanglm@idm.cn
作者简介: 曾勇(1990-),男,重庆人,助理研究员,主要从事灾害性天气研究.E-mail:15099610397@163.com
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引用本文:

曾勇, 杨莲梅. 新疆西部一次极端暴雨事件的成因分析[J]. 高原气象, 2018, 37(5): 1220-1232.

ZENG Yong, YANG Lianmei. Analysis on the Causes of an Extreme Rainfall Event in the West of Xinjiang. Plateau Meteorology, 2018, 37(5): 1220-1232.

链接本文:

http://www.gyqx.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2018.00014        http://www.gyqx.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I5/1220

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