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高原气象  2018, Vol. 37 Issue (5): 1325-1340    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2018.00024
论文     
一次江淮气旋极端雨雪过程的云系特征和成因分析
赵宇1, 蓝欣1,2, 杨成芳3
1. 南京信息工程大学气象灾害教育部重点实验室/气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心/气候与环境变化国际合作联合实验室, 江苏 南京 210044;
2. 海南省三亚市气象局, 海南 三亚 572000;
3. 山东省气象台, 山东 济南 250031
Analysis of the Cloud Characteristic and the Mechanism of an Extreme Rainfall-snowfall Event Associated with Cyclones over Changjiang-Huaihe River Basin
ZHAO Yu1, LAN Xin1,2, YANG Chengfang3
1. Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education/Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters/International Joint Laboratory on Climate and Environment Change, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, Jiangsu, China;
2. Sanya Meteorological Bureau, Hainan Province, Sanya 572000, Hainan, China;
3. Shandong Provincial Meteorological Observatory, Jinan 250031, Shandong, China
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摘要: 2016年2月12日夜间至13日白天,受冷空气和江淮气旋影响,山东出现了一次极端雨雪天气过程,全省48个国家级气象站日降水突破同期历史记录。采用多种观测和NCEP/NCAR的1°×1°再分析资料分析了降水云系的演变特征、风场的中尺度特征和降水成因。结果表明:(1)雨雪过程不断有β中尺度云团从苏皖移入山东,降水主要由4个β中尺度云团造成;江淮气旋逗点头云系由4条带状回波发展形成,暖锋云系以层状云为主,其间有零散的对流云,逗点云尾部的冷锋云系形成初期多为对流性,入海后对流性减弱;气旋形成后雷达回波发生气旋式旋转、拉长,形成多条中尺度强雨带。(2)水汽条件极为有利,来自西南和东南两个方向的低空急流持续输送充沛的水汽,降雨阶段还有来自东南方向超低空急流的水汽输送,降雪阶段边界层水汽输送微弱。(3)降雨阶段,低层为浅薄的东北风冷垫;降雪阶段,东北风冷垫较降雨阶段深厚得多。东北风冷垫上东南风层变薄直至减弱消失是雨雪相态转换的标志,强雨雪都发生在偏南低空急流最强盛时段。(4)低层低涡前部东北风和东南风的切变辐合、暖平流、暖锋锋生以及条件性不稳定能量释放强迫上升运动造成强雨雪。风廓线雷达和激光雨滴谱仪的观测是降水相态短时临近预报的有益判别资料。
关键词: 江淮气旋暴雨(雪)云系水汽锋生    
Abstract: An extreme rainfall-snowfall event that occurred in Shandong province from 12 to 13 February 2016 was contributed to the Cyclones over Changjiang-Huaihe River Basin. The precipitation of 48 stations in Shandong province broke the historic record of the same period. The characteristics of the cloud evolution and mesoscale wind field as well as precipitation mechanism were analyzed by using multiple observation and NCEP/NCAR 1°×1° reanalysis data. The main results show that:(1) Meso-β cloud mass constantly moved northeastward into Shandong province from Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, and the precipitation was contributed to four meso-β cloud mass. The comma head of Cyclones over Changjiang-Huaihe River Basin developed from four banded echoes. In the initial phase of the cyclone, the warm front cloud was dominated by stratiform clouds with scattered convective clouds, while the cold front clouds in the tail of comma cloud were more convective and then weakened after moving into the sea. When the cyclone formed, the radar echo had a cyclonic rotation and elongation, forming a number of strong mesoscale rain bands. (2) The water vapor conditions were very helpful to the precipitation. The low-level jet originating from southwesterly path and southeasterly path transported ample moisture. During the rainfall period, there was moisture transmission by the southeasterly ultra-low level jet, while the transmission was weak in the boundary layer in the snowfall period. (3) The northeast cold air mattress in the low level was shallow in the rainfall period, while it was much thicker in the snowfall period. The southeaster layer above the cold mattress experienced attenuation to becoming invisible, which is a sign of the phase transition from rain to snow. Both heavy rainfall and snowfall occurred in the strongest period of southerly low-level jet. (4) The convergence between northeast and southeast winds near the shear line in front of the low vortex, warm advection, warm frontogenesis and the release of the conditionally unstable energy, are the forcing mechanism of ascending motion, which result in heavy precipitation. The observations of wind profile radar and laser raindrop spectrograph are helpful to judge the precipitation phase in weather forecast.
Key words: Cyclones over Changjiang-Huaihe River Basin    heavy rainfall (snowfall)    cloud    water vapor    frontogenesis
收稿日期: 2017-09-14 出版日期: 2018-10-19
:  P426.63+1  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目(41475038,41475090)
作者简介: 赵宇(1968-),女,辽宁沈阳人,副教授,主要从事中尺度气象学研究.E-mail:zy0817@126.com
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引用本文:

赵宇, 蓝欣, 杨成芳. 一次江淮气旋极端雨雪过程的云系特征和成因分析[J]. 高原气象, 2018, 37(5): 1325-1340.

ZHAO Yu, LAN Xin, YANG Chengfang. Analysis of the Cloud Characteristic and the Mechanism of an Extreme Rainfall-snowfall Event Associated with Cyclones over Changjiang-Huaihe River Basin. Plateau Meteorology, 2018, 37(5): 1325-1340.

链接本文:

http://www.gyqx.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2018.00024        http://www.gyqx.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I5/1325

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