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高原气象  2018, Vol. 37 Issue (5): 1208-1219    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2018.00033
论文     
黄土高原春季植被变化分布与变化特征及其对春旱的响应研究
王丹云1,2, 吕世华3,4, 韩博1,5, 孟宪红1, 李照国1, 张静唯2,6
1. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院寒旱区陆面过程与气候变化重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
3. 成都信息工程大学大气科学学院/高原大气与环境四川省重点实验室, 四川 成都 610225;
4. 南京信息工程大学气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心, 江苏 南京 210044;
5. 中山大学大气科学学院 广东省气候变化与自然灾害研究重点实验室, 广东 珠海 519082;
6. 中国科学院大气物理研究所大气边界层物理和大气化学国家重点实验室, 北京 100029
The Characteristics of Spring Vegetation Cover and Its Response to Spring Drought over the Loess Plateau
WANG Danyun1,2, LÜ Shihua3,4, HAN Bo1,5, MENG Xianhong1, LI Zhaoguo1, ZHANG Jingwei2,6
1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold and Arid Regions, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China;
2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
3. College of Atmospheric Sciences, Chengdu University of Information Technology Plateau Atmosphere and Environment Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610225, Sichuan, China;
4. Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, Jiangsu, China;
5. Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Climate Change and Natural Disaster Studies, School of Atmospheric Sciences Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai 519082, Guangdong, China;
6. State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
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摘要: 利用两种归一化植被指数(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index,NDVI)产品,讨论了黄土高原春季植被覆盖度在1982-2014年间的时空变化特征,并对造成其变化的可能原因进行了讨论。在1982-1999年间,黄土高原整体植被覆盖增加,这种增加在2000-2014年提高了近3倍,仅在部分人类活动密集区域出现了植被覆盖度降低。近15年来黄土高原植被恢复最显著地区集中在农田和草原,即农牧区,这可能与在20世纪90年代开展的生态治理工程有关。从近30年的长期变化趋势来看,黄土高原春季降水减少而春季植被覆盖度增加。从年际变率上看,在春旱达到中度干旱及以上等级的年份,如1995年和2000年,黄土高原春季NDVI会显著减少。不同植被类型对春旱的响应存在差异,分析发现农田对春旱的响应最弱,这可能与人工灌溉及抗旱保墒活动有关,草地与森林对春旱的响应最强。伴随着生态环境工程的不断推进,未来黄土高原草地和森林的覆盖面积可能会进一步增加,高原植被整体对于春旱的响应可能会进一步增强。
关键词: 归一化植被指数标准化降水蒸散指数植被类型线性趋势年际变化生态恢复    
Abstract: Vegetation always represents the state of land cover change. It plays an indicator role in global change. It is a sensitive index of climate and human factors to environmental impact. And in arid and semi-arid areas, climatic conditions are the direct driving forces and important factors of vegetation growth and development. Vegetation coverage not only reflects the local dry and wet conditions, but also an important indicator of local drought resistance. Based on two kinds of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, the temporal and spatial variation of spring vegetation cover over the Loess Plateau has been discussed from 1982 to 2014. The spatial distribution of vegetation coverage in the Loess Plateau is basically consistent with the two NDVI data of GIMMS and MODIS. During 1982-1999, the integral NDVI in the Loess Plateau was increased. The increase rate was even greater in 2000-2014. The linear variation of NDVI and spring precipitation in the Loess Plateau is different. Because the spring precipitation in most area of the Loess Plateau was decreased in 1982-2014, it may not cause the change of spring NDVI. The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was used to characterize the spring drought in the Loess Plateau. Before 2000, when a severe spring drought happens, as in 1995 and 2000, the integral NDVI in Loess Plateau decreased significantly; for normal years before 2000, the correlation between NDVI and spring drought was weak. But after 2000, the correlation between NDVI and SPEI become strong and significant, which may be connected to the ecological restoration in Loess Plateau. In the past 2000-2014 years, the most significant increase of NDVI appeared in farmland and grassland, which should be mainly attributed to the ecological recovery project leading by local government in the 1990s, aiming to turn farmland into forest and pasture into natural grassland. Because of the human activity, the response to the spring drought in farmland is usually weaker than in grassland and forest area. In the comparison of interannual variability, the highest degree of correlation between the grassland and forest NDVI and the correlation coefficient of first leading EOF mode of SPEI, followed by the crops, and the last is the shrub. In addition to the drought tolerance of different vegetation, this difference may be related to geographical location. As a result, we can expect a more intensive response of vegetation to spring drought in Loess Plateau if the local ecological environment in Loess Plateau keep improving.
Key words: NDVI    SPEI    vegetation type    linear trend    interannual variation    ecological restoration
收稿日期: 2017-10-01 出版日期: 2018-10-19
:  P461+.7  
基金资助: 公益性行业(气象)科研重大专项(GYHY201506001);国家自然科学基金项目(41675015,91537214,41605011)
通讯作者: 韩博(1982-),男,陕西宝鸡人,副研究员,主要从事大气边界层、陆面过程等方面的研究.E-mail:hanbo@lzb.ac.cn     E-mail: hanbo@lzb.ac.cn
作者简介: 王丹云(1991-),女,河南洛阳人,硕士研究生,主要从事干旱及气候诊断的研究.E-mail:wangdanyun19@lzb.ac.cn
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引用本文:

王丹云, 吕世华, 韩博, 孟宪红, 李照国, 张静唯. 黄土高原春季植被变化分布与变化特征及其对春旱的响应研究[J]. 高原气象, 2018, 37(5): 1208-1219.

WANG Danyun, LÜ Shihua, HAN Bo, MENG Xianhong, LI Zhaoguo, ZHANG Jingwei. The Characteristics of Spring Vegetation Cover and Its Response to Spring Drought over the Loess Plateau. Plateau Meteorology, 2018, 37(5): 1208-1219.

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http://www.gyqx.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2018.00033        http://www.gyqx.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V37/I5/1208

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